psychology: The IQ Test – Does it Really Measure Intelligence Accurately?

Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests are a series of tests used to determine the general intelligence of an individual in relation to the general population and the result is called an IQ score. Test results are normalised to give people an average intelligence a score of 100, with numbers above and below this following a Gaussian or Bell curve. It has been argued that IQ tests are only one imperfect method of measuring certain aspects of intellectual ability.

Some argue that IQ tests are powerful predictors only in the fields in which literacy and numeracy are of central importance. Testing does give you some indication of your ability to think, reason and solve problems. It is also argued that there is no more important single characteristic for predicting a person's behaviour accurately than their Intelligence Quotient, or IQ score. The The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale consists of six verbal subtests and five performance subtests. The IQ test is scored so that the mean score is 100 and the distribution has the shape of a Gaussian function, with a standard deviation of 15.

Intelligence Quotient IQ is calculated as IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100. IQ tests are intended to measure people against each other, so scores are expected to fit a Gaussian Curve and should be interpreted according to the mean, deviation, and the scores that result. They are therefore calibrated in such a way as to yield a normal distribution , or "bell curve". The average score on an IQ test is 100, with scores of 85-115 being seen as the average range.

Intelligence testing is used by Clinical Psychologists to measure a child's intellectual capabilities in several specific domains. Children ages 3 years through to 16 years 11 months are appropriate for IQ testing. These tests can help determine a child's educational path. The results of an IQ test rank a child against a very large sample of children the same age. 

There is a lot of debate about the ability of the IQ score to predict a person’s prospects of succeeding in life. Why is it true that a large number of very intelligent people (as measured by IQ) do not make a success of life whilst school dropouts sometimes achieve very high levels of achievement in business and life generally? This has led to the emergence in emotional quotient (EQ) testing. A method of intelligence testing that focusses on interpersonal aspects of a person’s abilities rather than academic.

The emotional quotient (EQ) was first used as a measure of emotional intelligence by Dr Reuven Bar-On. It has the ability to sense, understand and effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions to facilitate high levels of collaboration and productivity. Emotional quotient is the counterpart to intelligence quotient, and is the ability to sense, understand and effectively apply the power and acumen of emotions to facilitate high levels of collaboration and productivity. EQ tests are not absolute and are therefore just as controversial as IQ tests.

Testing for "competence" rather than "intelligence" may eliminate many of the abuses connected with IQ tests. IQ tests are only a "refined" form of the relative estimate of intelligence made by the common sense judgment of teachers and psychologists. IQ tests are limited in their scope and usefulness in that they can measure only the academic aspect of intelligence. Some argue that because we often measure intelligence by literacy, vocabulary, comprehension, and general command of language people assume you are unintelligent if you can't seamlessly communicate with them. Others argue that some measures of intelligence can easily be topped by computational power. For example, if you measure intelligence by operations per second, then it can, but I think it's a very tricky area because if you're talking about intelligence as that thing which is uniquely human, which includes the ability to think outside of the box and for creative solution-making, it's a very subtle question whether a computer can be intelligent.

If you are interested in testing your IQ, there are many internet based tests you can take. So why not have a go. See if you think it is accurate. Get your friends to do the same and compare results. It can be fun. A test takes about 20 mins. At the end of the test, you will receive your result. if you want to find out how logical your thinking is and how smart you are, you can try out the IQ Test.

Psychological Testing of Personality

Psychological Testing: A Brief Yet Valuable Introduction

Psychological Testing of Personality

Since time immemorial people have been conscious of individual differences in thoughts, feelings, traits and behavior. An effective way through which the individual differences in personality can be understood, measured and predicted is psychological testing of personality.

All individuals have a limited awareness about their personality. There are certain attributes which we easily acknowledge while others which we don’t understand although they heavily influence our thought processes and behavior. Psychological testing of personality involves taking a detailed history and administration of a combination of self-report and performance-based psychological tests. Psychometric testing of personality helps in understanding the complex and latent psychological functioning of an individual. It helps in identifying both strengths and limitations of an individual’s personality.

Use of Personality Testing

While working as a psychologist in Delhi, I find psychological testing of personality quite valuable in my work. Psychological testing of personality can help in taking informed decisions in diverse settings:

1) It can aid the selection of candidates in corporate sector and determine the levels of stress.

2) It can help in clarifying the diagnosis and planning treatment of various psychological and psychiatric disorders.

3) It can assist in identifying psychological factors which lead to medical complications.

4) It can evaluate a person’s competence and sanity for legal purposes.

5) It can enable informed decisions in career planning.

6) It can be used for psychological research.

Types of Personality Testing

Broadly speaking, psychometric tests of personality which are used in Delhi can be divided into two categories- ‘self-report measures’ and ‘performance-based measures.’ Self-report inventories directly inquire into thoughts, feelings and behavior patterns of the individual. They help in assessing what people easily acknowledge and wish to reveal about them. Performance-based measures make an indirect assessment and are often helpful in revealing personality traits and motives which are unconscious. For a comprehensive psychometric assessment a combination of self-report and performance-based measures may be used. 

Process of Personality Testing

First and foremost it is important to understand the purpose of personality assessment and select appropriate psychological tests. Reluctance to disclose information on the part of examinee can be a big hurdle in psychological testing of personality which needs to be overcome by developing rapport. An attitude characterized by interest, authenticity and compassion on the part of the examiner often makes the examinee feel comfortable. Examiners should have adequate skills to identify if the examinee is trying to fake good or fake bad. Often such attempts lead to inconsistencies within a test and between the tests. It is also important to provide feedback to the examinee after the testing is over and see their reaction to the information obtained. Psychological testing of personality requires extensive training and experience.

Psychological Testing: A Brief Yet Valuable Introduction

Psychological Testing: A Brief Yet Valuable Introduction

At some point of life we found ourselves in a situation where we need to change something in our life, but we don’t know what or how to do that. At that point a psychological test is maybe one of the solutions that can provide you or anyone else with some answers. They can be done online via the internet at any time of the day and from any place with an internet connection. A psychological test can be seen as some sort of practical guidance manual for people. The psychological test can help you better to understand your own actions and feelings and how all that affects your social life and career as well.

There several psychological tests that you can take. The most popular psychological tests are tests on leadership development, personal exploration, career selection and career developments. The personal exploration tests are to assess and understand better your communication skills, your personality and your emotional intelligence. The leadership development tests are there to help you with your leadership skills and how to upgrade your style as a leader. The suggestions are there to identify your weak spots as well as to tell you how to make them disappear. It is an excellent way to identify any weak spots and to start working on removing them from your personality. If you go with test such as the career development tests than you will develop better communication skills, ways to become a better team player and how to resolve conflicts. As seen many times with other people before, a psychological test can be a turning point in the career. The overall conclusion is that with every test you can learn something new about yourself and how to spin that so you could advance in your career or in life generally.

If you are not so sure about the true value and the benefit of psychological tests you should read some of the reviews from people that have done such test. You will be surprised from the feedback that they gave on psychological tests and what they meant for them. The alternative for psychological testing is if you have sessions with psychology therapist. Not only will that cost you a lot of money, but you will need to find the time for that as well. On the other hand you can have the same results with the online psychological tests for a fraction of the time and for much less money. The answers in the tests are analyzed by experienced psychiatrists that will give to you the answers that you need.

Psychological Testing of Personality

Psychological Testing: A Brief Yet Valuable Introduction

(psychology) Motivational speaker Gavin Ingham interviews goal setting expert Andy Smith, part 2

10. Is there anything else you would recommend people to do, read or look at?

It's definitely worth taking a course like the four-day 'Create The Life You Want' workshop which is also the first part of the NLP Practitioner training - it's one thing to read about goal-setting methods, but you really have to experience them in practice to get the best from them.

There's a lot of interesting research on goals and motivation coming out of the Positive Psychology movement at the moment - you can keep up with it on my 'Practical EQ' blog.

And, if coming on one of our courses is not practicable for you at this time, why not get together with some of your friends and form an Achieve Your Goals book group so you can support each other as you work through the exercises? Social support is a key component of goal achievement that makes it much easier for most of us - you don't have to do it all by yourself!

As you can see, goal setting can form a key element in keeping yourself on track and focused. If you want more from Andy we also conducted an audio interview which will be available from my shop in the next few weeks. In the meantime, why not take some time out to review and revise your goals? I look forward to hearing of your successes.

Copyright (c) 2008 Gavin Ingham

Positive Thinking - Can the Way You Think Affect Your Health Physically?

Positive thinking sometimes can be perceived as a lot of "fluff," but science has been able to prove that there's more to it than just the "placebo effect." In fact, this article answers the question, "How to be Positive Automatically" because it discusses one of the best benefits of positive thinking that makes maintaining positive attitude routine. 

BECOMING ADDICTED TO POSITIVE THOUGHTS: Remember when you were upset as a kid and inevitably Mom would try to change your attitude by saying, "Everything's going to be alright?" Whether Mom knew about the power of positive thinking or not, those words were the best thing for her to say at the moment. Today, if we can be that "Mom figure" to ourselves and use positive thoughts and positive phrases like, "Everything's going to be alright," then we are actually using a very old "home remedy" to ignite different biological reactions within our bodies.

So, what exactly does that mean? It means that science has discovered that you can use the power of positive thinking for maintaining positive attitude and actually get "hooked" or "addicted" to it on a biological level.

One way that this happens is that your mind puts out chemicals that coincide with your emotions. So, when you're using positive thoughts to stay happy, your brain is actually flooding your body with "happy" chemicals. The interesting thing that occurs in this regard, though, is that your body may not be equipped to handle all the happy chemicals "coming down the pipe" if you've been depressed for a long time and are new to using the power of positive thinking to your advantage. So, your body has to make physical changes to adapt to the new flow of happy chemicals. Can it do this? Yes! 

In fact, one of the best benefits of positive thinking is that as you get better and better at maintaining positive attitude, you are consistently putting out "happy" chemicals and your body produces more and more cell receptors - or portals - to receive the new flood of chemicals, and this is pretty exciting news if you need motivation to change your attitude. Why? Because the more positive you become mentally, the more "happy chemicals" your body prepares to receive and craves, so your body helps you stay happy in order to get its "fix" of happy chemicals. This is where you can say attitude is contagious because your body wants more "happy juice" so your mind puts out more "happy chemicals" to satisfy the "cravings" of your body for "happy juice" so you don't have to think about "how to be positive" anymore. You're on auto pilot!

POSITIVE THINKING CREATES A "SMARTER" BRAIN: Positive thinking also has a positive impact on how the brain itself functions. Research in the field of positive psychology has shown that when a brain is kept positive by maintaining positive attitude, it actually creates more neural pathways faster and has an increased ability to problem solve and "think better." In other words, practicing the power of positive thinking and maintaining positive attitude are like feeding your brain "super food" to help it thrive.

So, can positive thinking affect your health in a positive way? Yes. In fact, when you're super charging your brain with positive thoughts, it runs better and since it's the central computer to your body, it floods your body with positive chemicals that keep you healthy and happy.

psychology: Coping with Disappointment? Congratulate Yourself - 10 Ways to Put a Positive Spin on It

Putting a positive spin on coping with disappointment is easy when you use a few simple tricks.

Here are 10 easy-to-use techniques to keep in mind when dealing with disappointment:


Yes, that's right, congratulate yourself for having enough hope in the first place to have gotten disappointed. Many times people don't risk being hopeful because of the fear of disappointment. So, if you're experiencing disappointment, that can only mean that you had enough courage to be hopeful. Congratulations!


Next, ask yourself, "What life lesson have I learned from this particular experience?" This has an interesting effect on your perception and immediately sets your mind in a positive frame to look for answers (instead of sulking in disappointment.) This also allows you to take a proactive approach when life is "pushing you around." You can either let life push, or step aside and allow life to "fall on its face" because you know you've grown on an emotional level from coping with disappointment in this manner.


Stay within your own power by letting go of things outside of your control and by taking action on the things within your sphere of influence. Many times, we experience disappointment because we are looking to others for results. Ask yourself, "How can I make my desire happen?" Or, "Is this something that I really don't have control over and I'd be better off letting go of others' results?" By breaking the pattern of disappointment and asking questions, you are tapping into a unique power within your brain. In fact, positive psychology studies show that when our brains are kept positive, they are physically more capable of finding answers. Staying within your power and asking questions keeps your brain positive and active.


Dwelling on disappointments mentally and physically trains your brain to attract more disappointment vibrations. When coping with disappointment, it's significant to note that your thoughts multiple. So, if you are fixated on a disappointment, instead of harnessing the positive power of your brain to find answers, you're actually "sentencing" your brain to being imprisoned thinking about disappointment. Of greater significance is the fact that your brain is also putting out "addictive" chemicals that keep your body craving disappointment. Instead, notice when you're thinking about disappointment and interrupt this thought pattern by thinking of something else... Perhaps congratulating yourself!


When coping with disappointment, it is helpful to compare where the disappointment sits in the big "scheme of things." Is it a significant setback or just a "blip" in the overall big picture of life. Successful people know how to keep perspective and they do this by keeping their long-range goals in mind and chipping away until they attain results. Using this technique in your everyday life works wonders. In this regard, it is very helpful to have a personal development plan for reference and for staying focused on your "overall" goals and desires.

Why Online Psychology Degrees Are Popular

Psychology is the field of study encompassing the scientific study of human behavior and the systematic application of this knowledge to applied problems. It also deals with the motivations that compel us to take action. Online psychology degree is convenient and flexible without compromising on the professional and personal commitments. 

Online psychology degree programs are becoming more and more popular because about 40 percent of psychologists are self employed which is approximately four times the average for professional workers. A majority of the psychologists including clinical and counseling specialists need a doctorial degree. Industrial -organizational psychologists need a master's degree and school psychologists need an educational specialist degree. 

The study of psychology deals with various branches like child psychology, clinical psychology, educational psychology, forensic psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, social psychology and sports psychology. On completion of online psychology program, a student would have gained the following skills and competencies. 

Ability to gain current information about psychology and psychological research, to think critically in solving behavioral problems, appreciation of diversity, competency with analytical skills and personal insight into their own behavior as well as of others, good communication and listening skills, ability to work in a team successfully and understanding of the major concepts theoretical perspectives and historical trends in psychology. 

A degree holder in psychology may be qualified for a wide variety of jobs like a copy writer, market research analyst, media planner, research assistant, teacher, public relations specialist and so on. A person who has acquired a master's degree may be required for the job of Addictions counselor, AIDS counselor, career counselor, mental health counselor and rehabilitation counselor and so on. 

As psychology is a multi disciplinary subject focusing on the behavior of individuals and how personal experience affects the decorum and the diversity of human experience, psychology holders are required and preferred for most of the jobs in a wide range of industries such as advertising agencies, counseling centers, day care centers, hospitals, market research firms, non profit organizations, public and private schools and youth services. Since there is a limit to the number of students who can be accommodated in Offline Colleges for psychology programs, online psychology programs are the only option left for those who want to pursue this career. 

Earning an online psychology degree can save a lot of time and money and enable to get advanced degree, which includes one year of internship in a clinical setting similar to on the job training. There is a growing awareness how students' mental health and behavioral problems affect learning. So, school psychologists offer student counseling. There is an increase in the number of employee assistance programs to deal with the personal problems of the employees. Marriage and family problems, job stress and drug addiction all need the help of psychologists. So, there is no doubt that there is gong to be a spur in the growth of jobs for psychologists

Why Online Psychology Degrees Are Popular

Psychology: The Study of the Human Mind

•Abnormal Psychology is the study of abnormal behavior. This specialty area is focused on research and treatment of a variety of mental disorders and is linked to psychotherapy and clinical psychology.

•Biological Psychology studies how biological processes influence the mind and behavior. This area is closely linked to neuroscience and utilizes tools such as MRI and PET scans to look at brain injury or brain abnormalities.

•Clinical Psychology is focused on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders.

•Cognitive Psychology is the study of human thought processes and cognitions. Cognitive psychologists study topics such as attention, memory, perception, decision-making, problem solving, and language acquisition.

•Comparative Psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior.

•Developmental Psychology is the branch of psychology that looks at human growth and development over the lifespan.

•Forensic Psychology is an applied field focused on using psychological research and principles in the legal and criminal justice system.

•Industrial-Organizational Psychology is the area of psychology that uses psychological research to enhance work performance, select employee, improve product design, and enhance usability.

•Personality Psychology looks at the various elements that make up individual personalities.

•School Psychology is the branch of psychology that works within the educational system to help children with emotional, social, and academic issues.

•Social Psychology is a discipline that uses scientific methods to study social influence, social perception, and social interaction. Social psychology studies diverse subjects including group behavior, social perception, leadership, nonverbal behavior, conformity, aggression, and prejudice.

Today, psychologists prefer to use more objective scientific methods to understand, explain, and predict human behavior. Psychological studies are highly structured, beginning with a hypothesis that is then empirically tested. Academic psychologists focus on the study of different sub-topics within psychology including personality psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. These psychologists conduct basic research that seeks to expand our theoretical knowledge, while other researchers conduct applied research that seeks to solve everyday problems. Applied psychology focuses on the use of different psychological principles to solve real world problems. Examples of applied areas of psychology include forensic psychology, ergonomics, and industrial-organizational psychology. Many other psychologists work as therapists, helping people overcome mental, behavioral, and emotional disorders.

Psychology is a broad and diverse field with a variety of related professions. If you are considering studying psychology, you are pursuing one of the most important and basic of the human sciences. You can expect to have a long, satisfying, and fascinating career if psychology is your field.

Why Online Psychology Degrees Are Popular

psychology: What You Need To Know About Signs Of Bipolar

Most of the time, there are people who are caught off-guard by written notes from a physician since they can barely understand the writings. On some occasions, unless you ask, your physician will not explain in detail what you or your caregiver should know. There are even instances when physicians only inscribe codes. This is true when you are a patient with bipolar disorder. Commonly, mental health experts use codes to interpret their findings. 

Psychiatrists habitually scribble codes in your records. Knowing the codes by heart will help you or your caregiver to understand and gauge the pertinent actions to undertake.

Codes are arranged by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). DSM is the typical categorization of mental disorders utilized by psychiatrists or other mental health experts. 

For bipolar disorder, there are chiefly three important codes such as codes for mood disorders, codes for substance induced mood disorders and code extensions for psychotic features. 

Codes for Mood Disorders 

There are several code categories under "codes for mood disorders." 

If a patient has a sole "manic episode" and there is no history of major depressive episodes then mental health experts usually interpret in under code 296.0x (F30.x). 

A patient with bipolar disorder who experiences a "hypomanic episode" in progress and had at least one incident of manic or mixed episode then it is categorized as code 296.40 (F31.0). 

The code 296.4x (F31.x) is characterized in patients who suffers from a current manic episode who have undergone major depressive, manic or mixed episodes. 

A patient with Bipolar I Disorder and have occurrences of mixed episodes and experienced any of major depressive, manic or mixed episodes falls into code 296.6x (F31.6). 

If a patient has major depressive episode and has a history of having manic or mixed episodes then mental health experts categorize this under code 296.5x (F31.x). 

The code 296.7 (F31.9) is being written down for patients who experience any of the following: mixed, manic, hypomanic or major depressive episodes. Along with the criteria, the patient suffered from at least one mixed or manic episode. 

Bipolar II Disorder can either be hypomania or depressed, has a code of 296.89 (F31.8) wherein the patient has more than one attack of major depressive episodes or at least one episode of hypomanic. Under this category, you must take note that there was never an attack of manic or mixed episode. 

Codes for Substance Induced Mood Disorder 

Mental health experts came up with codes to gauge measurable substances which heighten mood disorder. 

If a patient has alcohol intake which can stimulate mood disorder, then mental health experts interpret this as code 291.8 (F10.8). Ingestion of cocaine, on the other hand have code 292.84 (F14.8). 

Inhalants can also incite mood disorder, when this happens it is being regarded as code 292.84 (F18.8). Aside from inhalants, some sedatives can also stir up mood disorder. Mental health experts code sedatives as 292.84 (F13.8). 

For further information on codes for substance-induced mood disorder, you can check with your physician. It is important for patients as well as caregivers to know what substance triggers their temper so that preventive ways can be sought. 

Code Extensions for Psychotic Features 

On this type of code, it will be regarded into two categories (1) severe without psychotic episodes; and (2) severe with psychotic episodes. 

A patient with Bipolar I Disorder having the most current manic episode has codes 296.43 (F31.1) and 296.44 (F31.2) for severe without and severe with psychotic episodes respectively. 

The code 296.63 is for regarded for patients with severe disorder without psychotic episodes for patients with Bipolar I Disorder who have current experience of mixed episodes. On the other hand, 296.64 is the code for patients with severe disorder having psychotic episodes. 

A patient who have depressed episodes with Bipolar I Disorder has a code 296.53 (F31.4) if he has severe disorder with no psychotic episodes while 296.54 (F31.5) is the code for patients have severe disorder but with psychotic episodes. 

The meanings of codes are not simply for the medical practitioners to know. The patient should be knowledgeable of such codes for him to understand the course of his illness. Equally important is for caregivers to also acquire information with regards to different Bipolar Disorder codes so that they will properly take good care of their patients.

What You Need To Know About Signs Of Bipolar

psychology: Six strategies to help your subconscious mind work for you.

The most important budget in the world is the budgeting of your life.

Budget your life? Yes! Budget it with goals, goals that define and determine how you will spend that income that is the span of your life!

I am going to give you six "goal makers" that have been tested and proved by thousands of people. You won't need to take notes here, because I am giving this "super six" so that you can always use these pages as a reference. These "goal makers" are going to make "budgeting" a pleasure!

Major goals first

1. Establish positive, progressive goals! Relate your goals to your needs and desires to give them a positive slant. Establish goals that will take you forward from where you are, toward achievements that you can clearly define. This will label them as progressive. They become your major goals.

Alternate goals are important

2. Establish alternate goals along with the major ones. Set up alternate objectives, similar to the major goals, which you may switch to anywhere along the line without losing ground if circumstances require a change. For example, if a major goal is a trip around the world, and your vocational status changes so that you don't have enough time to spare, go to Hawaii or Europe instead. With alternate goals established, you will go somewhere stimulating and exciting. You won't stay home, sore at the world and your job because you couldn't make it around the world!

Maybe you don't want to go around the world. But whatever your major goals are, be sure that they are supported with alternates, so that progressive accomplishment is always assured.

Timetables for progress

3. As soon as each goal is established, put a timetable along side of it. This is where many fall by the wayside in money budgeting. This phase of budgeting is too practical for them and, while they say they will spend so much for this or that, they end up not doing it, because they were not definite about their goals. So, be definite about the timetable of "what, how, 'when." Besides, your subconscious is depending on you to be definite. It wants specifics to work on.

Never turn back

4. Anticipate meeting obstacles, but also anticipate overcoming them. At any time along your way toward a goal, you may meet an obstacle that seems like "the end of the road" or that appears to say: "You're all wrong! Forget the whole idea!"

Don't let either throw you. Get a good strong grip on the progress you have made, and hold that position! Hold it until you can thoroughly evaluate the circumstance and determine how to overcome the obstacle. You can overcome it. Remember the chapter on knowledge and learning? That told you how to meet such a situation. The important thing is to keep the goal strongly in focus and don't turn back.

Variety is necessary

5. Budget yourself with a variety of goals. Remember that your subconscious is your partner here, and this partner thrives on variety. The "more the merrier" is the way your subconscious looks at goals. One goal at a time won't amount to an adequate "budget" anyway. The important factor is have several different kinds of goals on the list at the same time.

What You Need To Know About Signs Of Bipolar

Depression: Flesh and Blood Or Thoughts and Emotions?

is depression caused by external factors, or by our own mind and body? 

The answer may not be as simple as some would like to believe. The commonly held view is that depression is caused by negative events or circumstances that result in fear, sadness, apprehension, and worry. External factors such as gloomy weather, the six o'clock news, and even how one views society at large --- are also considered major sources of depression.

Another school of thought in this issue about depression is rooted in biology and biochemistry. Going by this theory, depression is supposedly caused by chemical imbalances which, in turn, affect a person's psychological and emotional equilibrium. The discipline of psychology, however, takes a different tack by claiming that the chemical changes are effects of the psychological condition, not the other way around.

There are reports and studies that show depression as being linked to a variety of chemical changes in the brain. Changes in the brain's chemical receptors have been mentioned as possible causes of depression. The same has been said of damage to the nerves and biochemical transmitters that do the gritty work of the central nervous system. Serotonin is usually mentioned, though other neural receptors have also been named by a variety of studies into the topic. Noradrenaline and dopamine levels have also been mentioned by some studies as being linked to depression. It is these drugs that most antidepressant medications are designed to target. The basic idea is that low levels of the aforementioned chemicals causes depression, so higher levels should be uplifting. While most cases of depression are treated successfully in this manner, there are still some issues to be resolved. The low levels may be indicative of another problem, rather than being the root of the problem itself.

Psychology may be a major factor in depression, if not the root cause. Studies show that people who have suffered emotional or psychological trauma are more likely to develop depression later on in life. This is particularly true if the trauma occurred during the person's formative years, or was caused by a trusted figure in their life. Pessimism can also make it easier for a person to slide into depression, but most do not see it as a major factor. Anxiety disorders may also lead to depression, according to some studies. This stems from the negative self-perception that can be caused by anxiety disorders that cripple a person's ability to fulfill his perceived duties. These can include social anxiety and performance anxiety, among other types of anxiety disorders. As the negative self-perception sinks in, it begins to alter the person's view of reality. Eventually, as depression sets in, everything appears bleak and hopeless.

For the time being, it is difficult to be sure whether depression is a mental condition or a biological one. There is ample evidence to show that there are factors on both sides of the argument. However, there is a lack of evidence to point to either side of the coin being the definitive answer. More research into the matter is going to be needed, especially since there are some unanswered questions about depression. For example, the fact that depression seems to manifest frequently in families suggest some sort of genetic connection. Also, if the state of mind does have an effect on depression, then would there be a statistical correlation between nihilism and depression? Clearly, there is still much to be discovered about this condition.

What You Need To Know About Signs Of Bipolar

The Field of Psychology: What degrees are available?

Psychology is the science of the human mind and behavior—the study of the what and why of humanity. If you find the inner workings of the human mind fascinating, you might find that the field of psychology is right for you.

There are many programs available for study for those interested in psychology. Almost every college offers a Bachelors degree in the subject, and hundreds of colleges offer graduate degrees. Associates degrees are also available. So what degree program should you consider? Here is some information about each degree to help you make your decision.

Associates Degree in Psychology

An Associates degree teaches students the skills they need to understand basic psychology principles and methodologies. Any student who graduates with a Psychology Associates Degree will have an introductory knowledge of diseases of the mind and mental illnesses. This degree program usually lasts two years.

Because an Associates Degree in Psychology is really considered a "starter" or beginning degree, the employment options available for degree holders are fairly limited. You can apply for a federal government job, as federal agencies are among the few employers that hire psychology majors without an advanced degree (you do need a minimum of 24 credit hours to get a position).

Most individuals with an Associates Degree in Psychology go on to earn additional degrees. You’ll find that a psychology background provides a great foundation for a most business careers, particularly human resources and advertising and public relations.

Bachelors Degree in Psychology

A Bachelors degree in psychology is a four-year degree that studies the field more intently than an Associates degree, and creates a knowledge base of theory and research in the psychological sciences. Graduates with a psychology Bachelors degree also have the ability to apply the principles of psychology for the improvement of human, animal, and environmental well-being. The psychology major also introduces students to the basis of collaborative and professional relationships within psychology, and identifies the foundations and delivery systems of the mental health profession.

A Bachelors degree in psychology will not allow you to become a practicing clinician; it will, however, provide the perfect foundation for almost any career you want to pursue. This training is perfect for positions with law enforcement agencies, counseling and mediation services, and companies that require productivity expertise. This degree could be a ticket to whatever industry most suits your talents and personality.

Masters Degree in Psychology

Interestingly, the Masters degree in Psychology is actually mildly controversial. More and more in the United States, those interested in earning advanced degrees in Psychology are planning to become practicing psychologists (meaning they actually see and treat patients), so they often skip the Masters degree entirely on go directly into a doctoral program.

What You Need To Know About Signs Of Bipolar